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fatty acid the drop divides along the line of the thread. When the latter is moistened with soap the drop divides in the same way and in the same plane. The soap formed in one case and present in the other, it is explained, lowers the surface tension in the equatorial plane of the drop, and this diminu- tion results in a streaming movement away from that plane which brings about the division. He sug- gests that in cell division there is a liberation of "Science, October 7 and 14, 1910. By "this stage" 1 mean the time, however long or however short, between the 150 Mg Viagra Overdose completion 150 Mg Viagra Overdose of nuclear division and the beginning of cytoplasmic division. I am not prepared to deny or affirm that this stage represents a pathologi- cal halt in a physiological process. "Anyone interested in this cytological question may consult the recent quite readable monographs by Schaffer on Die Plasmaaelle>t. and by Schridde, Studien und Fragen der Entzundungshhre (both Jena, 1910). 150 Mg Viagra Overdose soaps in the plane of division which sets up stream- ing movements from that plane toward the poles and terminating in the division of the cytoplasm of the cell." Now while it may be true that enough 150 Mg Viagra Overdose has been advanced by MacCallum and by others to show that surface tension is not a minor feature of cell life and that it is the force concerned in nuclear and cell division difficulties have been encountered in reconciling its manifestations with familiar forms of electrodynamic energy. There is every reason to believe that a great forward step was taken in the study of cell dynamics when the mathematical principles of Gibbs were found to apply to vital phenomena. Many of these, though plainly of an osmotic nature, had not hitherto appeared to obey the laws of osmotic diffusion as ascertained from observations on nonliving membranes. In order more surely to point out the bearing of the quota- tions, I italicize some of MacCallum's words : "The essential points may be rendered in the statement that when a substance on solution in a fluid lowers the surface tension of the latter the concentration of the solute is greater in the surface layer than elsewhere in the solution ; but when the substance dissolved raises the surface tension of the fluid, the concentration of the solute is least in the surface layers of the solution." And "The occurrence of soaps which are amongst the most effective agents in lowering surface tension may be revealed with- out difficulty microscopically, as may also neutral fats, but we have as yet no delicate microchemical tests for sugars, urea, and other nitrogenous meta- bolites, and in consequence the part they play, if any, in altering the surface tension in different kinds of cells, is unknown." And again, "This de- termination 150 Mg Viagra Overdose is based on the deduction from the Gibbs-Thomson principle that, where in a cell an inorganic element or compound is concentrated, the surface tension at the point is lower than it is else- where in the cell." I do not pretend to say whether the presence of a soap in the form of a cholesteryl oleate, as was demonstrated in the uninuclear lymphocytes, in- hibits cytoplasmic division in these cells, or whether the preponderance of cholesterin in this form may in some way interfere with the lecithin as an agent in cytoplasmic division, as we will find shadowed forth as a possibility 150 Mg Viagra Overdose when we come to speak of the immunological side of the lipoid phenomena. Suf- fice it to say that the observations I have noted in my own work seem suggestive in the light of the investigations and the views of other workers. I iiave quoted so much from MacCallum, one or two I'urther extracts from his paper may be admissible. "There are in cells various inclusions whose com- position gives 150 Mg Viagra Overdose them a different surface tension 150 Mg Viagra Overdose from that 150 Mg Viagra Overdose prevailing in the external limiting area of the Cell. Further, the limiting portion of tlie cytoplasm in contact with these inclusions must have surface tension also. When, tlierefore, we find by micro- chemical means that a condensation of an inorganic element or compound obtains immediately within or without an inclusion, we may conclude that there, as compared with the external surface of the cell, the surface tension is low. It may be urged that the condensation is due to adsorption only, but this KLOTZ: MISUSE Of PROSTATE. r'og objection cannot hold, for in the Gibbs-Thomson phenomena the localization of the solute at a part 150 Mg Viagra Overdose of the surface as the result of high tension else- where of the solution is, in all probability, due to adsorption, and is indeed so regarded." (See Freundlich, KapiHarcheniie. p. 50, 1909. 1 It was from considerations such as these that Butschli came to liold that "the contractile move- ments of amoebae are brought about. In these the chylema or fluid of the foamlike structure in the protoplasm is alkaline, it contains fatty acids and. in consequence, soaps are present which, through rupture of the superficial vesicles of the foamlike structure at a point are discharged on the free sur- face and produce there the diminution of surface tension that calls forth currents, internal and ex- ternal, like those which occur in the case of the drop emulsion." Such principles, too, MacCallum urges, must be kept in view in the study 150 Mg Viagra Overdose of cell se- cretion, and he suggests as a working hypothesis that in the secreting or the excreting cell lower surface tension exists at its secreting or excreting surface than at any other point on the cell surface.^" While this is a little aside from our interest in caryocinesis it 150 Mg Viagra Overdose is helpful in its application to the growth of the globules observed in the lipoid cells which we have traced from the granulocytes and their final re- lease into the freedom of the lymph spaces by the parting of the limiting cell membrane at its lowest point of surface tension. Something of this kind we recognize enters in the physiological secretion of milk. To return for a moment to 150 Mg Viagra Overdose the question identify- ing the caryocinetic figures with the artificial elec- tromagnetic phantoms erected by various authors