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numerous modifications by the addition of various substitution compounds. In all he has made and tested about six hundred and thirty different sub- stitution products, of which only four possess the requisite parasitotropic properties without at the same time being organotropic. Of these, three have as their chief constituent arsenic. They are acetylatoxyl, arsenophenylglycin, and dioxydiami- doarsenobenzol. It is obvious that, without animals, pharmacologi- cal investigation of this character is neither possi- ble or justifiable, and herein lies the importance of the discoveries of Metchnikoff and Roux, of Schaudinn and Hoffmann, of Neisser, and others, nerthe'm," a coworker of Ehrlich, first made the preparation, and Hata' carried out the first experi- mentation on animals, showing that in mice one in- jection was sufficient to cure relapsing fever and the disappearance within twenty-four hours of Spiroclucta pallida from the scrotal chancres of rabbits. Alt and Hoppe," of Uchtspringe, after trying the drug on dogs as a precautionary meas- ure, were the first to inject human beings. They injected twenty- three patients, mostly syphilitic par- al^'tics. Schreiber" was the first to use the com- pound for recent syphilis, injecting in twenty-seven cases. Since that time Ehrlich has sent out about forty thousand doses of salvarsan to over five hun- dred physicians in various parts of the- world with the request that they use it in human syphilis. The Buy Viagra Online Australia Mastercard full chemical name of salvarsan is para- dioxydiamidoarsenobenzol dihydrochloride. Its formula is C,.^ H,._, 0._, N, As, IICl. It occurs as a sulphur yellow powder and is put up in sterile sealed tubes, as it is affected by exposure to the air. When dissolved in water the hydrochloride is de- composed with the liberation of hydrochloric acid, so that the solution is strongly acid, the injection of which is very painful. On this account suf- ficient alkali is added to combine Buy Viagra Online Australia Mastercard with the hydro- chloric acid of the salt, to liberate the base arseno- phenolamin which is insoluble and is injected in the form of a suspension in water or oil, or, if we continue the addition of alkali, we obtain a clear solution, due to the conversion of the acid salt into the sodium salt. .As the solutions are not stable, and cannot be rcstcrilized, they must be prepared and injected extemporaneously. 8i6 RYTIXA: SALVARSAN THERAPEUTICS. The methods of injecting the drug are three, viz. : subciitaneously, intramuscularly, and intra- venously. Some use acid, some neutral, others the alkaline solution ; some administer it in watery sus- pensions; others use oily liquids as vehicles. Each has its advantages and disadvantages. Buy Viagra Online Australia Mastercard In the neu- tral suspension, according to the method of \'\'ech- selmann,'" the injection is made subcutaneously. The advantages are that the method is more sim- ple, and the injection is painless if the suspension is exactly neutral. The disadvantages are its slow- ness of action, liability of abscess formation, and coagulation necrosis. Furthermore, experience has shown that the results by this method are not Buy Viagra Online Australia Mastercard as good as obtained by the other methods. Practically all of our poor results were obtained by this meth- od. The intramuscular injections of Alt" and Les- ser^- are more effective. They are usually given in the gluteal regions, usually half the solution on either side, on account of the bulk of the liquid. These injections are usually exceedingly painful. Lancinating and shooting pains develop within one to several hours, last three to four days, or even longer, and gradually subside. One of our patients was unable to walk for eight days following an intramuscular injection. At the site of the injec- tion there develops a diffuse swelling, which is red, tender, markedly indurated, and lasts about eight days. Abscess formation is rare and the pain and infiltration usually yield to rest, and hot or cold applications. By the intravenous route, if per- formed properly, there is absolutely no pain, the action is very prompt, and the results are brilliant. The disadvantages are the more severe and rap- idly developing reactive phenomena, which, how- ever, are not serious and last but a short time. The chief disadvantage and the one on which most everybody dilates, is the supposed rapid elimina- tion of the drug (three to four days). It is con- tended that in the advanced stages of syphilis, ow- ing to the intrenchment of the Spirochccta pallidce by the pathologicoanatomical changes present, the drug, on account of its rapid elimination by the in- travenous method, fails to encounter large numbers of encapsulated spirochsetas. This observation of Fisher and Hoppe^^ is not borne out by clinical ex- perience, because, long after the expiration of this time, we still note continued and progressive im- provement of the syphilitic processes. Further- more, Bornstein" has shown experimentally in guineapigs that Buy Viagra Online Australia Mastercard following intravenous injections of salvarsan, even after one and a half hour, the greater percentage of the preparation has disap- peared from the circulation and is deposited in the form of arsenic in the various internal organs, vis., liver, spleen, kidney, muscles, etc., whence it is gradually given off. This applies also to human beings, as he had the Buy Viagra Online Australia Mastercard opportunity of examining the organs of a man who died fourteen days after an intravenous injection of salvarsan. of an intercur- rent afifection, and was able still to find considerable amounts of arsenic in the liver, kidneys, spleen, etc. TECHNIQUE. In the Buy Viagra Online Australia Mastercard beginning we employed Buy Viagra Online Australia Mastercard the cannula meth- od, which is exactly similar to the operation done for venous transfusion of normal salt solution. More recently, we have been employing the original .'^chreiber method,'^ reserving the cannula method for those rare cases where the Schreiber method is impracticable. ACTION. Buy Viagra Online Australia Mastercard The action of salvarsan is very interesting. If you add salvarsan solution to spirochaetse in a test Buy Viagra Online Australia Mastercard