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too, a change has been made recently, and since the application of the tincture of iodine for sterilizing the skin it is also being used by surgeons in prepar- ing their hands. The iodine method for skin dis- infection in preparing the abdomen for laparotomy Buy Viagra Online Using Paypal was first published by Grossich in the Zentralblatt fiir Chirurgie, October 31, 1908, and iodine in so- lutions of "different strength is now used for this purpose in many large surgical clinics and it has largely supplanted the washing and scrubbing and application of solutions of mercury, etc. The origi- nal method as suggested and practised by Grossich consists in the applicatinn of the tincture of iodine, and the following is an abstract from the Journal of the American Medical Association, December 5. 1908, p. 2012 : Grossich applies a ten or twelve per cent, tincture of iodine to the field operation and to disinfect the skin around without any preliminary scrubbing with water. His microscopic studies have shown that the tissues take up the iodine much more leadily when they are dry, and that it pene- trates deeply into all of the nooks and Buy Viagra Online Using Paypal crevices, which does not occur with the usual Buy Viagra Online Using Paypal preliminary scrubbing with soap and water. The water ma- cerates the epidermal cells and they swell and plug the openings. He relates his experiences with this technique, especially in Buy Viagra Online Using Paypal a large number of cases of open crushing wounds in laboring men. Buy Viagra Online Using Paypal The parts are shaved dry, then painted with the tincture of iodine, and a sheet is then laid over the naked patient, etc. After the patient has Buy Viagra Online Using Paypal been anresthe- tized, the field of operation is painted a second time with the tincture of iodine and the completed su- •Rcad before the Philadelphia County Medical Society, February 32, I9II. 782 GILBRIDE: BREAKING DOIVX OF WOUNDS. [New York Medical Joukx.' ture is swabbtd anew with it. He has never wit- nessed any by effects from this technique, not even when a third of the body was painted with the iodine. This technique he is convinced eliminates all danger of infection from the patient. He ap- plies it only when the w^ound is still entirely free from inflammation, as shown by redness and swell- ing. If the tincture of iodine is applied after the parts have been recently scrubbed with soap and water, there is liable to be suppuration. It is indis- pensable that the tissues should be dry when the iodine is applied for this purpose. .Some surgeons have their patients prepared by washing the field of operation with soap and water, etc., the night before the operation, when time per- mits, and then applying the tincture of iodine when the patient is placed on the operating table. Other surgeons apply this technique with an additional application of the tincture of iodine one or two hours before the operation. Waterhouse, in the Lancet, April i6, 1910, p. 1063, uses two per cent, tincture of iodine in recti- fied alcohol with the following technique : Shaving and necessary washing of the skin are performed some hours before in order to allow the skin Buy Viagra Online Using Paypal to dry. Then he paints the solution on the skin two hours prior to the operation. He repeats this one hour later in important cases. A small flat paint brush is used. In using any of these solutions the skin should be painted for a good distance around the field of operation, but the solutions should not be permitted to run all over. Benzin and benzin iodine solutions have also been recommended for sterilizing the skin for opera- tions.^ But the skin of some patients is too sensi- tive for strong iodine solutions. The same is true of benzin. Petroleum benzin for surgical sterilization of the skin is used by C. Zatti {Gassetta degli Ospedali e delle cliniche, April 19, 1910, No. 47, p. 497). The field of operation is wiped over with cotton satu- rated in petroleum and this is followed by the ben- zin. Pure benzin may be applied to the skin, and after it dries, which takes only a few minutes, the tinc- ture of iodine or other iodine solutions may be ap- plied. In the benzin iodine solution, a solution con- sisting of one or two parts iodine crystals in one thousand parts benzin may be applied as a pre- liminary to the other iodine solution. The benzin not only aids in removing the fat but it is believed it also aids in a deeper penetration of the iodine. In dealing with the pathological conditions it is frequently necessary to protect the surface of the wound from infection. This is especially true when a hollow viscus is opened, as in operations on the stomach and intestines and gallbladder. If moist gauze is used, that wrung out of sterile warm water or a weak solution of iodine, one drachm of the tincture to a quart of water, is satisfactory. All wounds that arc infected, as shown by a growth from a culture made at Buy Viagra Online Using Paypal operation, do not break down, and, on the other hand, some wounds from which no growth is obtained on culture media subsequently break down. This depends on the 'Benzin Iodine for Disinfection of the Skin. Esau. Medisiniscke Buy Viagra Online Using Paypal KI'mih. NTay ,10, 1910, No. 22, p. 801. natural resistance of the patient and the virulency of the infecting organism, Dannreuther {Medical Record, January i6, 1909, p. 99) recommends the irrigation of abdominal wounds, after closure of the peritonseum, by the method of Augustus Buy Viagra Online Using Paypal H. Goelet, with a drachm of tincture of iodine to a pint of water. Jewett [Ibidem. August 14, 1909, p. 271) says that in his experience with iodine so far, in clean cases, no wound has broken down. When pus is present it